They help with the decomposition of organic matter via both moisture retention and proper aeration.
The proper combination of moisture and air produces ideal conditions for anaerobic activity. It is the anaerobic bacteria that generate high temperatures which transform organic materials into useful compost.
But enough science for now!
A similar process occurs over time inside a compost heap or pile with or without the housing. Compost bins speed up decomposition meaning you can get your compost on your garden faster!
Benefits Of Composting
There are several benefits associated with a compost bin:
Erosion Composting significantly helps in preventing erosion. Erosion that is experienced on playing fields, side of the road, near water and on hills is reduced.
Growth Areas that have compost promote healthier soils, trees and plants. It provides food and a home for useful soil organisms such as earthworms and bacteria. Composting inoculates soil with useful organisms like nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Soil chemistry It helps to improve the effectiveness of both chemical and organic fertilizers. Composting increases the capacity of the soil to retain plant protein but only the soluble ones. It helps in holding nutrients in the root zone thus preventing leaching.
Pollution Composting helps in keeping landfills free of organic matter. This is good because it results in less production of methane gas. This is a gas that is estimated to be 21 times more potent compared to carbon dioxide.
Toxins Composting inhibits the spread of all the toxic matter present in soil like fuels and pesticides. This translates to healthier water, plants and soil in an area. It binds all heavy metals so that plants do not absorb them.
Compost degrades both toxic chlorinated as well as non-chlorinated hydrocarbons, wood preservatives and explosives. It filters water and air contaminants.
Physical structure of soil Humus contained in compost helps to bind particles of light crumbling soils together. Water retention of light sandy soils is improved by compost.
It aids soil to resist compaction hence the root can penetrate the soil much easier. It transforms heavy and sticky soil into a workable state.
Who Is A Compost Bin Suitable For?
Compost bins are suitable for gardeners particularly in city and town centers because they do not occupy much space.
Building A Compost Bin
The main reason for building compost bins is to ensure that composting materials stay together. The bin must be big enough to enable compost to be turned with a pitchfork or a shovel, this speeds composting materials and promotes aeration.
Here is a sneaky little secret:
Compost bins are ideal when covered because excessive rain cools down the compost and the composting process slows down. The construction of a compost bin should be simple.
It is good to build compost bins from scrap or recycled lumber. However, plywood should never be used because it quickly delaminates in the composter’s damp environment.
So this is how you can make your own compost bin:
What Materials Do I Need?
You will need to:
Obtain 2 x 6 lumber (7 lengths) and cut each to 3’. You can have the cuts made at your local lumberyard. Get unplaned wood. In addition, the lumber must not be treated with preservatives because even the untreated lasts for long.
Get 2 x 2 lumber, a total of 4 lengths and cut each to 3’
Buy 28 galvanized common nails, each 2 3/4″ long. Alternatively, you can utilize coated decking screws.
How Do I Put It Together?
The steps are as follows:
Sharpen 1 end of each of the 2 x 2 to function as stakes. The best way is to use a hatchet to guarantee your bin will stay in place.
The 3’ board should be nailed to the 2 x 2. Adequate space should remain between the boards for aerating the pile. It is advisable to pre-drill all the nail holes to simplify nailing and to minimize splitting of the wood.
The compost bin should be set in place and its corners driven deep into the ground using a heavy hammer or a sledge hammer.
The height of the bin can either be 2 or 3 boards high as it depends on the expected compost. The space between the stakes should not exceed 3″. Alternatively, consider stapling 1/4″ galvanized mesh to the interior and leave the large spaces.
When Is The Best Time To Compost?
A compost bin can be started at any time. This is because compost piles are capable of generating their own heat. However, the best times to compost are in the months of spring and fall.
Spring Spring is the best time to compost as it is also the time most people plant their gardens. The warm weather facilitates an easier break down of the compost materials.
Fall Start a compost bin in the fall at the time when you are cleaning the garden and preparing for the cold months. This allows the compost pile to gradually grow in readiness for spring. Furthermore, the bin will act as a good disposal spot for leaves.
How Do I Make Compost?
Composting in the correct manner uses a simple approach and there are two types of composting i.e. hot and cold.
You are probably wondering – what is hot composting?!
Hot composting is a faster process and is considered to be for serious gardeners. It allows the gardener to get compost in just one to three months especially in warm weather. It needs four ingredients i.e. water, air, carbon and nitrogen. It is these items that feed microorganisms which in turn expedite the decay process.
On the other hand, cold composting involves collecting yard waste and simply collecting them in a bin or yard.
Avoid items such as dairy products, dog or cat faeces, chips or sawdust from pressure-treated wood, deceased plant materials and items with grease, fat, oil and meat.
The composting steps are as follows:
Combine brown and green materials. Collect adequate materials i.e. 3 feet and above. Build the pile gradually using green and brown items. Add brown items in case your pile smells and appears too wet. Add water and green items if it appears very dry and brown.
Regular sprinkling of water is mandatory for it to achieve the consistency of damp sponges. Too much water is discouraged because it can drown the organisms present. The temperature should be carefully monitored using a thermometer to ensure proper decomposition is taking place. It should be warm.
The pile should be stirred up to provide adequate oxygen, this can be done on a weekly basis using a garden fork. Turn at temperatures of 130 – 150 degrees F or when the pile feels warm. Stirring helps in cooking and eliminates odor.
When the compost ceases to produce heat and is now crumbly, brown and dry, it is properly cooked and ready for use.
Steve is a one time gardening hater turned into gardening obsessive. This was all thanks to going to University where a two year stint spent transforming the previously horrific garden of the student house he lived in left him addicted to all things horticultural! Now with a new house in tow and due to some fortunate circumstances he is free to test out a whole host of gardening equipment. Find out more about Steve or drop him an email at firstname.lastname@example.org.